Bibliography: Democracy (page 560 of 596)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the I'm with Tulsi website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Yuri Reznik, Dakmara Georgescu, Margaret Bruce, E. J. Josey, Richard W. Clark, Joseph F. Shubert, G. Alan Karnes-Wallis Hickrod, Gill Kirkup, Thomas J. Galvin, and White House Conference on Library and Information Services.

Spady, Richard J.; Clark, Richard W. (1989). Democratic Strategic Planning: Democratic Strategic Planning in Schools through Inclusive Small-Group Discussions Using Many-to-Many Communication Technology. Richard Spady has identified 10 general theories through research in the field of administrative theory. Three of the theories are stressed in this paper. First, the theory of learning that uplifts the importance of the Socratic method is stressed, followed by a reflection on the research of Arthur W. Combs that defined the characteristics of good and poor teachers. Third, the Zeitgeist principle is discussed. The paper describes one application of these theoretical considerations in the democractic strategic plan implemented at the Bellevue School District (Washington State). It took 2 years to implement the process in a district with a 36-year history of commitment to the notion of participative decision-making. The communication processes developed by Spady and adapted by the Bellevue School District offers a means of engaging large numbers of people in a dialogue without the usual dissatisfaction expressed by participants of large meetings. Appended are five references, sample responses from the "many-to-many opinionnaire," and a sample summary of opinionnaire responses and comments.   [More]  Descriptors: Administration, Democracy, Democratic Values, Elementary Secondary Education

Schechter, Stephen L. (1991). The Bill of Rights as a Blueprint for Self-Government. In the United States, the Bill of Rights is most often thought of as the charter that establishes individual rights in categories such as "freedom of expression" and "rights of the accused." In this essay it is argued that this conception of the Bill of Rights, while perhaps acceptable for constitutional law, does not provide an adequate historical interpretation. This paper seeks to examine the eighteenth-century meaning of the Bill of Rights and the particular rights provided within it. The eighteenth-century conception of rights was more community-oriented than the individual-oriented conception of rights today. A term that describes the eighteenth-century conception of the Bill of Rights is "protected self-government." This concept contains two strands: civil liberties and the right to self-government; and the provisions of the Bill of Rights were designed not only to guarantee civil liberties but also to tie those liberties into the political right of self-government. The right to a trial by jury is used as an illustration. In the late eighteenth century the Founders viewed the right of trial by jury as a right belonging not only to the accused but also to the citizen as juror. It also is contended that there are five basic sources of the concept of protected self-government and its particular provisions contained in the U.S. Bill of Rights. These are English law, Puritan and Whig consent theory, American colonial charters of liberties, first American state constitutional bills of rights, and the constitutional ratification debate of 1787-88. Each of these is considered in turn as it relates to the concept of "protected self-government." Descriptors: Civil Liberties, Community Control, Constitutional History, Constitutional Law

Georgescu, Dakmara (1995). A Project on "Human Rights Education in Romanian Schools.". This student textbook for civic education in Romanian schools revolves around the significance of human rights issues in a democratic state. The guide is divided into the following five chapters: (1) "The Significance of Human Rights Issues in the Context of Civic Education"; (2) "Individual Identity"; (3) "The Individual Person's Relationships to Other People and to Various Social Groups"; (4) "Controlling Social Life through Norms and Laws"; and (5) "The Individual and the Natural Environment." Contains a glossary of terms and a 15-item bibliography.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Citizenship Education, Civil Liberties, Democracy

Galvin, Thomas J. (1990). The Idea of a Library in 2001. White House Conference on Library and Information Services, Bookmark. This paper offers a framework for thinking about the "library" in the year 2001 and predicts that, although the development of new technologies will impact libraries, it will not reduce them to the status of museum artifacts. Three questions are identified as critical areas for delegates to the 1990 New York State Governor's Conference to consider: (1) Who will benefit from the new information technology and who will be left behind? (2) What is the responsibility of local, state, and Federal governments to narrow the gap between the "information haves" and the "information have notes"? and (3) How can libraries help achieve information equity and information justice for all? It is concluded that the challenge facing the delegates is to ensure that every New Yorker has access to the vast knowledge resources that are now available.   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Information, Democracy, Futures (of Society), Information Technology

Hickrod, G. Alan Karnes-Wallis; Ward, James Gordon (1987). Two Essays on the Political and Normative Aspects of American School Finance: An Historical Perspective. The MacArthur/Spencer Special Series on Illinois School Finance, Number 1. Two essays are presented in this monograph, the first in a series of publications examining educational finance and using Illinois data. After an introduction, the first essay replies to a "Forbes" magazine cover story on educational finance that asks if education is economically efficient. The central theme is that the maintenance of a large, well-financed, public educational system is central to the continued existence of a democratic society, and that economic efficiency should not be the highest priority in education. Selected readings and an appendix graphically depicting the concepts of equity and adequacy conclude this essay. The second essay is an inquiry into the normative foundations of American school finance and uses the works of the founders of the field of school finance written at the begining of the century to support the suggestion that school finance policy issues are as deeply embedded in American political philosophy and in the history of the Republic as they are in economics and technical analysis. It is argued that the Republic and in fact civilization is in danger without an adequate, equitable, and efficient school finance system. Forty notes conclude this essay. Descriptors: Democracy, Educational Economics, Educational Equity (Finance), Educational Finance

Boggs, David L. (1992). Adult Civic Education. ERIC Digest No. 129. Civic knowledge, skills, and the disposition to use them to achieve a vision of the community that is desired can be furthered through purposefully structured civic education. Informed judgment and action with regard to the public's affairs is the goal of adult civic education. The integral elements of adult civic education are information, values, and action. An objective in adult civic education should be to help citizens learn how to use the aid of experts and qualified professionals in making public policy decisions while limiting it to citizen review and control. Another problem for adult civic education is to help learners develop civic virtue as a basis for acting when their involvement in a public issue in the first place is often driven by emotional investment in a special interest, deflecting attention from a larger view of public responsibilities. The ultimate objective of civic education is to help citizens learn to be morally responsible actors. Adult educators have responsibility to serve as advocates, not of specific choices or solutions to public issues, but of thoughtful and deliberate choice that is a prelude to action.   [More]  Descriptors: Activism, Adult Education, Advocacy, Citizen Participation

Shubert, Joseph F., Ed.; Josey, E. J., Ed. (1991). Clarifying and Defining Library Services, The Bookmark. This issue presents articles which, in some way, help to clarify and define library services. It is hoped that this clarification in library service will serve to secure the resources libraries need to serve the people of New York. The following articles are presented: (1) Introduction: "Clarifying and Defining Library Services" (Joseph F. Shubert); (2) "The Democratic Heritage for This and New Generations" (Mario M. Cuomo); (3) "Libraries and the Learning Society, or Great Expectations" (Thomas Sobol); (4) "Clarifying and Defining Library Services" (Fernando Ferrer); (5) "The New York and White House Conferences on Library and Information Services: How Will They Affect Public Policy and Services?" (Peter R. Young); (6) "On Being Atavistic, Computerate and a Literary Beach Bum: An Argument on Behalf of the Past" (William Kennedy); (7) "Libraries and the Reformation of Higher Education" (H. Patrick Swygert); (8) "Libraries and Educational Reform: Access Is Ownership" (Geoffrey Marshall); (9) "The Role of Libraries in a Diverse State" (Lucille C. Thomas); (10) "Surveying the Landscape" (Joshua Cohen); (11) "What Is at Stake at the White House Conference" (Richard C. Wade); (12) "Libraries in Cities" (R. Kathleen Molz); (13) "Following Dewey's Paths" (Walter Cooper); (14) "Native American Libraries and Their Library Systems in New York State" (Joseph F. Shubert); (15) "The Seneca Nation Libraries" (Ethel E. Bray and Midge Stock); (16) "Why Public Library Districts?" (Joseph Eisner); (17) "Report and Recommendations of the 1991 New York State Library Visiting Committee"; and (18) "Report of the Governor's Conference on Library and Information Services." Descriptors: Access to Information, American Indians, Democracy, Information Services

White House Conference on Library and Information Services. (1989). The Challenge of the Information Age. White House Conference on Library and Information Services. The major challenge presented by the Information Age is equitable access to information. This challenge results from the sheer amount of information that is being produced and the rapid advances in technology for storing, organizing, and accessing this growing mass of information. One effect of these developments is an increasingly fragmented information base, large components of which are available only to people with money and/or acceptable institutional affiliations. This paper begins by discussing the importance of information literacy to individuals, businesses, and citizenship. Opportunities to develop information literacy are then described, with emphasis on the role that libraries can play in this endeavor. The paper concludes with the statement that knowledge is this country's most precious commodity, and that information literate people are America's most valuable resource.   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Information, Democracy, Economic Factors, Equal Education

Reznik, Yuri (1997). The Reform of Higher Education in Post-Soviet Russia: 1987-1997. This paper describes higher education reform in post-Soviet Russia. Basic educational reform began in 1987 towards the end of the Soviet period, moving through two earlier stages, and is now in the third stage. The first stage was an ideological shift in the vision of education as a social institution and a profound change in the philosophy, content, and methods of education (with an emphasis on humanization). In the second stage, the old dogmatic approach to education management was phased out, and a new concept management other than direct administration was implemented. This stage decentralized and democratized higher education to allow higher education institutions more academic and financial autonomy, created non-state institutions, and put greater emphasis on human-centered studies. It also codified the legal basis of reform. The third stage is a technical one; the main objective of which is fostering and putting into effect earlier reforms. The paper also offers details on the structure and mechanisms of the development of higher education in Russia and presents a comparative analysis of higher education in Russia and in the world's leading countries. The paper concludes with a description of Chita State Technical University, an example of an institution in the third phase of the reform process.   [More]  Descriptors: Change Strategies, Decentralization, Democracy, Educational Administration

Merrill, John C. (1989). Freedom and the Growth of an Ethical Dimension in Journalism. To examine what freedom is and how it, in its many manifestations, may best be used to thrust journalism into more productive, progressive, and moral directions, this paper surveys the concepts of freedom and press freedom in Western thought from the eighteenth century to the present. After surveying the evolution of the concept of freedom, beginning with Aristotle, the paper examines perspectives on freedom of expression as given by classical defenders of the concept, concentrating especially on British and French Enlightenment spokesmen. Early American perspectives (of Jefferson and others) are surveyed next. The paper then gives an overview of some contemporary viewpoints, followed by a more specific discussion of press freedom as it impinges on journalism and journalistic thinking today. Sixty-three notes are included. Descriptors: Censorship, Democracy, Freedom of Information, Freedom of Speech

Cornett, Jeffrey W. (1996). Uncertain Mediation, Unrestrained Dialogue, and the Role of the Civics Teacher: Learning about Civics Instruction from Hungarian Educators. This paper recounts the experiences of a U.S. professor involved in field research in Hungary. The professor visited classrooms and observed civics education practices in Hungary. The paper combines a review of the literature with observations, interviews, and field notes from the Hungarian experience. Specific emphasis is placed on a "Good Citizen" class in the Textile Industrial Vocational High School in Szeged, Hungary, as an example of a people struggling with democratic ideals and implementation of those ideas into society.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Citizenship Education, Civics, Comparative Education

Bruce, Margaret; Kirkup, Gill (1986). An Analysis of Women's Roles under the Impact of New Technology in the Home and Office. Focusing on the ideology of the sexual division of labor with emphasis on women's roles and their work, this paper argues that social ideology dominates both the domestic and the office environment, and is perhaps the most powerful force determining the rate and direction of technological change. The argument set forth is illustrated by two case studies that examine the effects of new technology on women's life in two areas–the private, unwaged domestic sphere, and the public, waged environment of the office–both of which are considered parts of a larger technological and social system in which changes in one are related to, and have effects on, the other. The paper discusses why some forecasts suggest that new office technology may actually contract the market for clerical/secretarial work and what the repercussions will be. It is concluded that unless the ideological foundations of technological development are uncovered and examined, rather than ignored and unchallenged, technology will continue to function as a conservative force. (33 references)   [More]  Descriptors: Computers, Democracy, Females, Foreign Countries

Im, Yung-Ho (1987). Objectivity as Ideology: A Comparison of the American and Soviet Concepts of News. The concept of "objectivity" suggests that facts are selected and constructed according to formal rules by professional journalists. A comparison of American and Soviet concepts of news leads to the observation that both share similar claims to objectivity. The similarity defies whether objectivity assumes the form of facts detached from values in the American case, or sociopolitical information in accordance with "objective" historical laws in the Soviet counterpart. While the American concept of news presents itself in such a way that its ideological function is implicit, the Soviet concept of news is defined in such a way that its ideological function is explicit. In spite of the apparent contrast, the claims to objectivity in both cases serve to legitimize the trend toward the concentration of access by media industries in the United States and by the State in the Soviet Union.   [More]  Descriptors: Capitalism, Communism, Comparative Analysis, Democracy

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Mershon Center. (1993). Projekt Programu Nauczania Ksztalcenia Obywatelskiego (Proposed Civic Education Curriculum for Primary and Secondary Schools). This document consists of three documents in a packet that make up a curriculum guide that presents objectives, content outlines, sample lessons, and background readings for the development of a primary school and a secondary school civics course in Poland. The documents are: (1) Proposed Civic Education Curriculum for Primary and Secondary Schools; (2) Proposed Civic Education Curriculum for Primary and Secondary Schools: Sample Lesson Plans; and (3) Selected Supplementary Materials for Civic Education Teachers. The first document is divided into two parts, one on primary schools, the next on secondary schools. The curriculum for grades 1-5 is on life in society and focuses first on the individual and others, then on people and nature. The curriculum for grades 6-8 is on life in a democratic society, focusing on the group, economy activity of the individual and society, and individual citizens and the government. The part on secondary schools is divided into chapters on people as individuals, social groups, society, nation, economy, the place of Poland in the world, protecting the world, and selected problems of the contemporary world. The second part of the curriculum guide provides sample lesson plans developed by the Polish primary and secondary school educators who developed the outline of the first section. The section consists of 8 lesson plans for primary schools, and 8 for high schools. Topics include group leaders, decision making, children's rights, and economics. Only the titles are included in this document. The third section of the curriculum guide is a table of contents listing supplementary articles by prominent scholars throughout Poland.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Citizenship Responsibility, Civics, Curriculum Development

Selman, Gordon (1991). Citizenship and the Adult Education Movement in Canada. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education. This monograph outlines the impact of citizenship education in Canadian adult education. It posits a tendency in Canada toward the reliance upon and the development of the community. This tendency might explain why Canadians focus their attention on "the imaginative training for citizenship." In the first chapter, the concept of citizen education is examined, against the background of different citizenship styles. Chapter two considers the features of Canadian history and society relevant to citizenship education and indicates the nature of adult education's response. In chapter three, the special case of the Canadian Association for Adult Education is examined. A description of programs and projects follows in the next three chapters. Chapter four describes programs related to the needs of immigrants and to ethnic groups. Chapter five deals with programs that create an informed citizenry and to dispose Canadians to play an active part in the democratic system. Chapter six focuses on programs that bring about social change. The final chapter summarizes current trends in adult education and focuses on future directions of citizenship education. A list of 269 references is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Citizen Participation, Citizenship Education, Cultural Pluralism

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