Bibliography: Democracy (page 573 of 596)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the I'm with Tulsi website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Jeanne Osborne, Antonio J. Carretero, Gregory Moss, Paul Gathercoal, Jane Anderson, Deborah Grubb, John J. Patrick, Michael Connelly, Daniel Fasko, and Janice Pearson.

Parisi, Lynn; Pearson, Janice (1990). Oh, Garbage! Decisions about Waste Disposal. Creative Role-Playing Exercises in Science and Technology Series. This document is one of a series of role plays that focus on science-related social issues of concern in contemporary public policy formation. The role plays are designed to help students develop information-processing and decision making skills needed to deal effectively with such issues. The role plays guide students in analyzing science related social issues by applying the concepts of science, technology, conflict, values, risks, costs, benefits, decisions, and public policy. The role play presented in this manual considers the dilemma faced by a community whose landfill is nearing capacity and faced with closure. The case is set in the fictional community of Hanson. Students are assigned roles representing Hanson City Council members, scientists, government officials, Hanson residents holding various views on the issue, and other interested individuals. The students participate in a simulated city council hearing to present arguments related to the pros and cons of various ways to manage Hanson's solid waste disposal in the future. Three major alternatives are considered: (1) build a waste-to-energy incinerator, (2) build a new landfill, and (3) institute a mandatory recycling program combined with a new landfill. Students are organized into groups representing the three positions and a decision making group, the city council. Through several days of research the groups compile evidence to support their respective positions and contribute the information to a classroom resource center for the use of all groups. The culminating exercise is a public hearing. A discussion analyzing the different viewpoints and the decision making and risk management processes concludes the activity. Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Citizenship Education, Citizenship Responsibility, City Government

Bull, Barry L.; And Others (1992). The Ethics of Multicultural and Bilingual Education. The ethical and educational dimensions of the quest for multicultural and bilingual education are explored, introducing the variety and complexity of these problems and ways of thinking about them. The application of liberal, democratic, and communitarian theories of political morality is discussed as examples of alternative approaches to these problems. The book is centered on descriptions of representative school settings (case studies) in which issues of multiculturalism and bilingual education arise. The following chapters are included: (1) "The Nature and Complexity of Issues in Multicultural and Bilingual Education"; (2) "The Liberal Perspective"; (3) "The Democratic Perspective"; (4) "The Communitarian Perspective"; (5) "Concluding Reflections on Political Morality in Multicultural and Bilingual Contexts"; (6) "Using and Analyzing Cases"; and (7) "Cases for Reflection and Discussion." Contains 76 references. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Case Studies, Children, Cultural Awareness

Mann, Sheilah, Ed.; Harrison, Cynthia, Ed. (1991). Bicentennial of the Bill of Rights, This Constitution. This issue of "this Constitution" is devoted to commemorating the bicentennial of the Bill of Rights of the U.S. Constitution. Materials include: "A Chronology of Civil Liberties and Civil Rights in the United States" (Herman Belz); "Constitutional Power to Enforce Individual Rights: The Legacy of McCulloch v. Maryland" (J. Woodford Howard Jr.); "The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Civil Liberties: From 'Rights in Property' to 'Property in Rights'" (James A. Henretta); "The Reality of Rights in an Atolerant Society" (Joel B. Grossman; Charles R. Epp); "Roundtable of Participants in the Passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964" (Raymond E. Wolfinger); "What Americans Should Know about the Bill of Rights: Eight Lessons" (Mark P. Petracca); a lesson for the classroom: "Abigail Adams on the Constitutional Rights of Women" (Corinne Wright); and "The Bill of Rights: A Bibliography" (Kermit L. Hall). A final section called "Bicentennial Gazette" provides a list of Bill of Rights resource organizations. Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Civil Liberties, Civil Rights, Civil Rights Legislation

O'Connell, Daniel W. (1996). Lesson Plan on Comparative Political Systems: Compare and Contrast the Presidential Election System of the USA to the Parliamentary Election System of Hungary. This lesson describes the current government of Hungary and its underlying political and electoral systems. The lesson is structured with: (1) background on the parliamentary model of government, political parties, and Hungary's unique electoral system; (2) a summary of the six major political parties in Hungary and voter information for the 1990 and 1994 elections; and (3) conclusions about the fluidity of the electoral system in Hungary and comparisons with the U.S. electoral process.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Citizenship Education, Civics, Democracy

McEwan, Barbara; Gathercoal, Paul; Nimmo, Virginia (1997). An Examination of the Applications of Constitutional Concepts as an Approach to Classroom Management: Four Studies of Judicious Discipline in Various Classroom Settings. This paper presents a composite of four separate research studies conducted to assess the impact of constitutional language on classroom environments. The studies were designed to examine the uses of "Judicious Discipline" in a variety of classrooms and how the use of a common language based on rights and responsibilities affected the behavior of students. The studies covered a variety of locations including New York, Minnesota, and Oregon. The studies reveal the need for educators to take the time to teach students about their individual rights as well as their social responsibilities. Students who have had the opportunity to learn about their societal expectations as they are balanced against personal freedoms, are more likely to attain a level of autonomous social development.  Teachers are less likely to feel frustrated about student behavioral problems and more likely to experience reduced levels of work-related stress. The studies also indicate that when teachers provide students with a common language of civility, there is a common ground for discussion, mediation, and reconciliation of many social problems that typically develop in the classroom. The data from the studies indicate that students who are taught to engage in civil discourse tend to use it to resolve conflicts peacefully, rather than resort to verbal or physical assaults. Evidence in the studies suggest this approach to classroom management is also effective in special needs classrooms.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizen Role, Citizenship, Citizenship Responsibility, Civics

Patrick, John J. (1989). Liberty and Order in Constitutional Government: Ideas and Issues in "The Federalist Papers.". This publication provides a brief introduction to core ideas of constitutional government in the United State as presented in "The Federalist" by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. The first of "The Federalists" papers was written by Hamilton, who joined with Jay and Madison in this series of essays to refute the objections to the Constitution raised by the Anti-Federalists. Excerpts from both "The Federalists" and "The Anti-Federalists" series of publications are included. Both sides viewed liberty and order as the necessary ends of government, but could not agree as to what an acceptable balance between liberty and order would be. There was also disagreement within the Federalist camp. Hamilton argued that a strong central government was required to preserve the governmental integrity of the nation, and that checks and balances between the three branches of government would prevent any one branch from abusing its powers. Madison argued that government must have the power to maintain itself and perform its duties, but he spoke for limits to protect the liberty and security of the individual. Information and ideas that can be used in a Federalist/ Anti-Federalist forum focusing on the primary issue of the balance between liberty and order are presented. Suggestions are made on how to structure and conduct the forums. A chronology of events associated with the Federalist/Anti-Federalist debate, a guide for teachers and forum leaders, a participant rating sheet for the forum, and a bibliography of 18 items are also included.   [More]  Descriptors: Constitutional History, Curriculum Enrichment, Democracy, Democratic Values

Figueroa, Peter (1995). Multicultural Education in the United Kingdom: Historical Development and Current Status. This chapter provides a historical review of the development of education for a multicultural society in postwar Britain, particularly in England. It is based on existing literature but makes no claims to be comprehensive in coverage. Britain has long been culturally diverse and characterized both racism and by antiracist forces and democratic ideals. As with social issues of any significance, there is scarcely an issue of any importance related to the education of a multicultural society that has not been contested, as a review of the historical developments in multicultural education demonstrates. Among the many opponents of multicultural education have been antiracists who have condemned the failures of multicultural education to attack racism directly. There is no inherent conflict between the two approaches, and one of the objectives of future educational strategies should be integrating the two approaches to educational reform. (Contains 208 references.) Descriptors: Attitudes, Cultural Pluralism, Democracy, Educational History

Grubb, Deborah; Osborne, Jeanne; Fasko, Daniel, Jr. (1997). Adolescents' and Educators' Perceptions of Values: Implications for Public Education. This paper reports the findings of a survey of rural northeastern Kentucky high school teachers on the questionnaire "What Do You Really Believe?," an instrument originally developed by Phi Delta Kappa (PDK) and revised to assist in identifying a potential set of Core Values to which a majority of the public might subscribe. The present study rephrased the statements originally intended for use with teens to ask teacher to agree or disagree with statements reflecting their own values. Teachers from three county district high schools in northeastern Kentucky participated in the study. The completed questionnaires were scanned and analyzed for 88 teachers. The study found agreement on which values are important, that is democratic values versus authoritarian values, but found many values-oriented problems facing our society over which there is disagreement. The document suggests a follow-up study be conducted with parents to ascertain their beliefs and see how they correlate with the earlier student study by the same researchers and the present study of teacher attitudes. (Contains 36 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Attitude Measures, Beliefs, Culture Conflict, Democracy

Connelly, Michael; Moss, Gregory (1996). The Deliberative Opinion Caucus: Improving Quality in School Decision Making. School districts often find themselves in a double bind when dealing with the public: they seek public input, but also are vulnerable to manipulation by organized interest groups that are not representative of the entire community. The dilemma is how to procure the overall community's public judgment of a topic and allow widespread participation. This paper presents findings of a study that tested the practicality and applicability of a deliberative opinion process for school districts. Officials of the Weatherford, Oklahoma, Public School District designed a variation of Fishkin's (1994) deliberative opinion poll, called the Deliberative Opinion Caucus (DOC). The officials used their variant of the DOC in March 1994 to evaluate the feasibility of a year-round school calendar. A total of 31 out of 400 registered voters in the district accepted the invitation to participate in the session. Participants listened to presentations highlighting the pros and cons of year-round education, engaged in both group discussions and a general open discussion, and completed an opinion poll. Respondents were somewhat favorable to alternative scheduling and preferred the "45 days in session, 15 out" format. They also indicated their overall support of the schools system. More importantly, respondents strongly approved of the DOC mechanism. They described its strengths as an informative process and an opportunity to hear opinions and interact. Weaknesses included poor attendance, one-sided material, and no student participation. Despite the low turnout, the designers of the process learned from the practical difficulties. Recommendations for improving the DOC included more indepth surveys, varied coverage of issues, and followup of nonparticipants. (Contains 30 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Community Support, Democracy, Elementary Secondary Education

Keller, Sheila (1996). Civic Education: Tradition and Change in Florida and Hungary. This paper examines the U.S. educational system foundations, with particular emphasis on the state of Florida and contrasts that system with the Hungarian system, long under the communist control of the Soviet Union. Funding, educational initiative, and curriculum control are discussed. The paper concludes with accounts of personal experiences in Hungary and observations of the rudiments of democratic citizenship and citizenship education. The paper summarizes that citizenship education has support in both the United States and Hungary and that educational reform is underway in individual classrooms across the nations.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Citizenship Education, Civics, Comparative Education

Carlson, Dennis (1997). Making Progress: Education and Culture in New Times. The essays in this collection, although written at different times, are all part of a process of forming a democratic progressive educational policy and practice for the United States in the new historical era. Each chapter groups essays that critique some aspect of existing public school practice, explores the limitations of current reform efforts, and offers some suggestions toward a democratic and progressive response. Chapter 1, "Progress, Progressivism, and Postmodernism in Education," examines current educational philosophies and the belief in progress. Chapter 2, "Public Education in Changing Times," examines the broad shifts in postmodern society and explores their implications for educational change. Chapter 3, "Making Tracks: The 'Detracking' and Retracking of Public Education," focuses on recent reform efforts associated with educational tracking. In Chapter 4, "Constructing the Margins: Of Multicultural Education and Curriculum Settlements," multicultural education is explored. Chapter 5, "The Cultural Politics of Sexuality Education," examines the battle over sexuality education in U.S. schools, and Chapter 6, "Gayness, Multicultural Education, and Community," examines the role public education plays in the marginalization of gays and lesbians. In Chapter 7, "Stories of Colonial and Postcolonial Education," several stories from personal experience explore colonial and postcolonial education. (Contains 211 references.) Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Democracy, Educational Change, Educational Philosophy

Birzea, Cesar (1996). Education for Democratic Citizenship Consultation Meeting. General Report. This collection of educational documents, technical reports, legislative documents, and summaries from a variety of areas of education for democratic citizenship was assembled for the consultation meeting in Strasbourg, France. These documents formed a foundation for the work of the meeting and a future project dealing with civics education in schools and adult education in the European countries represented. The report is structured in three parts. The first part seeks to explain the political context of the new project, emphasizing its place within the overall activities of the Council of Europe. The second part deals with education for democratic citizenship with conceptual clarifications in terms of the most closely related concepts of civics education, civil education, and human rights education. The third part of the report aims to group the proposals concerning the new projects by covering the several aspects of needs, objectives, target groups, expected results, key issues, working methods, and evaluation. Descriptors: Adult Education, Citizen Role, Citizenship, Citizenship Education

Dougherty, John W. (1997). Four Philosophies that Shape the Middle School. Fastback 410. This booklet examines four philosophical approaches which undergird the tenets of middle school: (1) invitational education; (2) democratic schools; (3) constructivist teaching; and (4) reflective teaching. An introduction discusses the history of the middle school movement, lists characteristics of exemplary middle schools, presents recommendations of the Carnegie Task Force for middle school operation, and summarizes the functions of middle schools. A chapter is devoted to each of the philosophical movements; in each chapter, the philosophy is defined, its major principles elucidated, and its implementation at the middle school level discussed. Invitational education involves working from a language that expresses care, reflected through modeling, dialogue, practice, and confirmation. The basis of democratic schools is to make a commitment to conditions and processes that make mutual respect and continuous dialogue possible for all participants. Constructivist teaching entails a belief that learning is a social process in which teachers help learners to internalize and reshape information or reinvent their knowledge. Reflective teaching requires teachers to think seriously about the origins and consequences of their pedagogy and about the situations and constraints embedded in the instructional, curricular, school, and social contexts in which they work. The four philosophical movements are complementary and provide a sound basis for educators to provide meaningful experiences for young adolescents. (Contains 43 references.) Descriptors: Constructivism (Learning), Democracy, Demonstration Programs, Educational Philosophy

Saez Brezmes, Maria J.; Carretero, Antonio J. (1993). Negotiated Program Evaluation in Spain. A concise overview is provided of the history of evaluation, focusing on educational evaluation, followed by some observations on program evaluation in Spain and possible future developments. Evaluation was a new concept in Spain at the end of the Franco era, at a time when its development was beginning to gain momentum in the United States. The evolution of evaluation in Spain has been conditioned by the political climate and the relationships between central and regional governments, the absence of a participatory tradition, the lack of evaluation specialists, and the need to balance individual and collective rights. The evaluation model that has to be developed in Spain must be fundamentally based on negotiation. Evaluation should be interpreted as a negotiation process that facilitates deeper understanding of all audiences of the object to be evaluated. The challenges in Spain will be to facilitate the professional work of evaluators so that evaluation can contribute to the democratic structure of society and to increase efficiency in organizational functioning by establishing more participatory models. (Contains nine references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Educational Assessment, Elementary Secondary Education, European History

Anderson, Jane; And Others (1993). Foundations Symposium: A Continued Dialogue on Critical Theory, Cultural Analysis, and Ethical Aspects of the Field. Seven articles are presented from a symposium on critical theory, cultural analysis, and the ethical aspects of the use of educational technology. Two papers deal with the educational philosophy of two modern thinkers, and others focus on educational technology in the modern or postmodern era. The following papers are included: (1) "Foucault and Disciplinary Technology" (Jane Anderson); (2) "Paradigms Reframed: Constructivist, Post-Industrial, Modern or Postmodern Educational Technology?" (Denis Hlynka); (3) "Foundations and Technology in Education: A New Area of Study within the AECT?" (Al Januszewski and Elisa J. Slee); (4) "Post-Modern Thinking in a Modernist Cultural Climate: The Need for an Unquiet Pedagogy" (J. Randall Koetting); (5) "Schools and Technology in a Democratic Society: Equity and Social Justice" (Robert Muffoletto); (6) "Critical Theory, Educational Technology, and Ethics: Helping Teachers Respond Meaningfully to Technology" (Randall Nichols); and (7) "Where in the World Is Jacques Derrida?" (Andrew R. J. Yeaman).   [More]  Descriptors: Conferences, Constructivism (Learning), Critical Theory, Cultural Differences

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