Bibliography: Democracy (page 575 of 596)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the I'm with Tulsi website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Philip S. Bashor, Harvey J. Tucker, Peter Mason, Timothy Ryan, Glenn A. Mitchell, James K. Hertog, Jose Veiga Simao, New York B'nai B'rith, Jack C. Hanna, and L. Harmon Zeigler.

Gubasta, Joseph L. (1977). Illusions and Realities of Managing for Planned Change. There are several commonly accepted college and university governance concepts and management styles: (1) the assumption that organizational goals can be precisely defined and that institutional processes are widely understood; (2) the collective bargaining concept, which assumes that there are fundamentally conflicting interests within the organization; (3) the democratic approach to institutional governance; and (4) the consensus approach, which assumes that institutional authority rests with those who are willing to debate issues and arrive at decisions through mutual agreement. These models have serious shortcomings, both as reflections of reality and as prescriptions for change by leadership. Institutional researchers can play a significant role in the management of planned change if they avoid functioning under many of the present management myths and illusions. Colleges and universities are characterized by hazy goals, an unclear technology, and fluid participation, which make them more difficult to describe, understand, and function in.   [More]  Descriptors: Administration, Administrative Problems, Change Strategies, Collective Bargaining

Jaehnig, Walter B. (1978). Journalists and Terrorism: Captives of the Libertarian Tradition. Because modern terrorism threatens democratic values such as personal liberty, free expression, and the limitation of institutional authority, it raises ethical problems for journalists who are drawn into a symbiotic relationship with those who threaten or use violence against a community. Recent terrorist incidents in the United States involving the Hanafi Muslims in Washington, D.C., Anthony Kiritsis in Indianapolis, and Corey Moore in Cleveland have caused a public reconsideration of the role and purpose of journalism in issues that threaten a free society. The responses from the news industry on this issue are libertarian in nature, upholding classical concepts such as free market of ideas, individualism, the self-righting nature of truth, and antigovernmental sentiment. Such a notion of objective journalism exempts the journalists from any moral or ethical response to the issue of terrorism. This lack of concern with values promotes a moral neutrality that evades the issue and determines the journalists' coverage of terrorism according to the economic and organizational imperative of the new media. Descriptors: Civil Liberties, Democracy, Democratic Values, Ethics

Bashor, Philip S. (1976). Parental Authority and the Democratic Ethic. This paper sequentially reviews recent writings in moral philosophy (1970-1975) on topics related to the problem of morally justifying parental authority while adhering to democratic values. The problem is treated theoretically, and practical life problems are not addressed. The review ecompasses the works of some forty writers on the topics of the democratic ethic, authority, punishment, paternalism in law, moral education, and parental/filial rights and duties as these relate to the problem. It is concluded that the reviewed literature shows the strength of the democratic ethic and provides justification for parental authority. It is noted that both factors stand open to further definition and determination, within themselves and in their relation to one another.  Descriptors: Authoritarianism, Child Rearing, Democracy, Democratic Values

Mason, Peter (1993). The Role and Structure of an Independent Sector in a Modern Democratic Society. An European View. In examining education systems in Europe, examples show that it is wiser to build slowly and carefully, preserving what is best in existing practice, and discarding what is out of mesh with the times. Using illustrations from 14 countries in western Europe, 4 factors largely determine the size and composition of the independent sector in a country, the degree of autonomy and effectiveness enjoyed by schools, and the freedom of parents to choose. These are: (1) the existence and nature of constitutional and legal guarantees of the rights of parental choice and freedom of belief and association; (2) the effects of state subsidies and controls resulting in marked differences in standards, accessibility, and autonomy; (3) the amount of indirect aid to parents and schools from the state and the community; and (4) the historical interplay of educational patterns and social mores, and in particular, the degree of involvement of the churches in education. In organizing education in a democratic society, a critical balance needs to be considered among four conflicting needs: (1) the freedom of choice for parents among schools with different educational philosophies; (2) adequate controls by society to safeguard sound standards of education in schools; (3) reasonable freedom to innovate and experiment; and (4) equality of opportunity regardless of ability to pay. Reaching a balance depends on attaining sufficient consensus among all concerned.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Educational Development, Educational History, Educational Needs

Mitchell, Glenn A. (1992). Research Parks: Instrument or Harbinger of a New University Paradigm?, Interchange. Discusses research parks as indicators of change in the role of universities; examines the evolution of universities and their relationship with research parks. As private and public sectors demand skilled human resources and research, universities must focus on the interface between university, industry, and government, thus maintaining autonomy. Descriptors: Academic Freedom, College Role, Corporate Support, Democracy

Simao, Jose Veiga (1978). Road to the Future. General Aspects of Brazilian Higher Education and a Brief Comparison with Other Educational Modes. Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper. After a brief explanation of the economic and social background of Brazil, its educational system is described and the prospects for higher education there are explored. Like most nations, Brazil's higher education system is unique and adapted to its own needs. Its system bears similarities to both European and American traditions. In the near future, expansion of higher education is presumed to be substantial, and there is concern for providing equal educational opportunity. Increased democratization is expected, and the opening of opportunity is assumed to provoke debate on the structure of Brazilian society, institutional priorities, and governance. However, the university is anticipated to mirror the social strata of Brazil for a long time to come. A brief bibliography is included. Descriptors: Access to Education, Comparative Education, Democracy, Economic Climate

Systems Planning Corp., Sacramento, CA. (1975). Compilation of Fall 1974 Goals, Subgoals and Priorities Meeting Goals Collection Criteria. California school districts reported their goals, subgoals, and priorities by matching statements to those in a catalog of 279 possible educational goals developed by a state legislature subcommittee. This report compiles data collected from 217 school districts that met certain goals collection criteria. Data from the remaining 614 participating school districts that did not meet the goals collection criteria are presented in a companion report. Tables include tabulations of goals, subgoals, and priorities data for elementary, secondary, and unified school districts, and for urban, suburban, and rural school communities. Summary tables present the most frequently mentioned goals, subgoals, and priorities including the ten statements ranked by the highest priority group.    [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Democracy, Educational Objectives, Elementary Secondary Education

Ryan, Timothy (1988). Living Dangerously–Changing Press Law in India. An examination of the changes in press laws after India gained its independence in 1947 shows how a free press is shaped mostly by the structure and evolution of the democratic society that it is intended to serve. The most salient features that have characterized the Indian press, from the early nineteenth century to the present day, are political opposition and reaction to a number of laws with regard to the media that India inherited from Great Britain (for example, registration of books, newspapers, and periodicals). Prior to independence several bodies of legislation shaped the tenor of the increasing tension between the press and government. In 1947, the new constitution superseded all previous restrictive press laws and guaranteed all individuals "freedom of expression." Analysis of legislation passed since then and a comparison with other countries' policies towards freedom of the press, shows that political history and geography can mean as much as ideology. The single issue which continues to play a major role in both the political and press life of the nation is the tension between maintaining communal calm and the freedom to inform, incite, and excite on religious issues. The laws the press now functions under have the capacity to engender repression, but judicial sanctions help ensure the continuing ability of the Indian press to function critically. (Eighty-one notes are included, and 37 references are appended.) Descriptors: Censorship, Colonialism, Democracy, Foreign Countries

B'nai B'rith, New York, NY. Anti-Defamation League. (1987). America's Conscience: The Constitution in Our Daily Life. An Educational Program on the Constitutional Guarantees Provided to Every American. Twenty activities and seven educational objectives help teachers inform students of their rights as citizens. Each objective is demonstrated through the use of one or more activities that help students experience the learning for themselves. Each activity consists of teaching procedures and student handouts. Section 1 is an examination of the Bill of Rights. Activities 1 through 3 define rights and give an overview of the Bill of Rights. Activity 4 discusses important U.S. Supreme Court decisions supporting constitutionally guaranteed rights. Religious freedom is the focus of activities 5 and 6, and activity 7 explores the rights of free speech. Activity 8 examines the balance between the public's right to know and other interests through a discussion of court cases pertaining to freedom of the press. The rights of peaceful assembly and demonstration are discussed in activity 9. Activities 10 and 11 look at the rights of the accused, emphasizing the protection against self-incrimination. Violations of human rights and the responsibilities of citizens that accompany civil rights are the focus of activities 11 and 12. The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments are the subject of activities 14 through 20. A glossary is provided. Descriptors: Civil Liberties, Civil Rights, Constitutional Law, Court Litigation

Moodley, Kogila A. (1995). Multicultural Education in Canada: Historical Development and Current Status. Canada is one of the few democratic societies that has addressed the issue of cultural and linguistic pluralism, incorporated it into its definition of national identity, and formulated it as a formal state policy of multiculturalism. Canada has always been an ethnically heterogeneous society, and the view that Canada values the cultural mosaic has always held prominence. Recognition of the potential divisiveness of issues of culture and schooling led to the shift in control of education at confederation from the national to the provincial arena to allow for the expression of differences. The main difference in multicultural policies is between an ethnocultural support-service orientation, as pursued in Ontario and Nova Scotia, and a language-based view of multicultural education as practiced in Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Manitoba. In either situation, the complexities of perpetuating different cultural traditions are evident. What minority parents most want for their children, however, is competence and not the condescending teaching of fragmented versions of their culture. (Contains 115 references.) Descriptors: Cultural Awareness, Cultural Differences, Democracy, Educational History

Fuchs, Lawrence H. (1995). The American Civic Culture and an Inclusivist Immigration Policy. The evolution of an inclusivist immigration and naturalization policy in the United States is described. The policy, implicit in the founding myth of the United States as a haven for all, has been challenged repeatedly by ideas of national membership, and is only possible because of the American principles of universal rights. The founding ideals of the country generally accepted Europeans regardless of nationality in spite of the restrictions imposed in a few of the fledgling states. This inclusivist tradition was, however, never intended for people of color. An exclusivist tradition fed by the xenophobia of the post-World War I era was broadened to put immigration on a racist basis in the 1920s. The civil rights revolution put a spotlight on that racism and resulted in a welcome given immigrants in the 1970s and 1980s that was fundamentally different from that of earlier years because Americans were beginning to value ethnic diversity. While social critics may claim that racism has gotten worse since the death of John F. Kennedy, a review of immigration policy does not support this contention. The principles of civic culture and voluntary pluralism, while still under attack, have gained the ascendancy. (Contains 90 references.) Descriptors: Civics, Civil Rights, Cultural Pluralism, Culture

Hertog, James K.; McLeod, Douglas M. (1988). Anarchists Wreak Havoc in Downtown Minneapolis: A Case Study of Media Coverage of Radical Protest. Media in democratic societies are generally assumed to have a responsibility to provide a forum for the articulation of diverse ideas, including radical discourse. Research on media coverage of groups which challenge the status quo, however, shows the limitations of the media in the democratic exchange of ideas. To evaluate the coverage of one of these "deviant" groups, an analysis focused on news coverage of two recent anarchist marches in downtown Minneapolis, Minnesota. Articles and television coverage from local newspapers and television stations were analyzed to determine the rhetoric used to describe the marches, the sources of information cited by the media, and the ideological frames of reference used to structure elements of the story. Results showed that the media (1) covered the anarchist marches in Minneapolis with a pro-establishment orientation; (2) tended to "marginalize" the group by focusing on the group's violence and appearance, as opposed to the issues being raised; and (3) framed the marchers as being in opposition to law enforcement instead of to government and big business. In addition, research on other newspapers shows that to gain exposure to a diversity of viewpoints on social protest, which includes thorough discussion of the issues being raised, it is necessary to go outside mainstream media accounts of social movements. (Sixteen notes are included.)   [More]  Descriptors: Activism, Democracy, Demonstrations (Civil), Dissent

Hanna, Jack C. (1989). Who Controls the Video?. Television plays a monumentally large role in U.S. society; no one is immune from its effects. The government does not control television, but it is not far from the truth to say that television controls the political life of this country. This paper analyzes the democratic objectives and effects of television in the United States. A brief history of government regulation of television, including the fairness doctrine and the deregulation of the 1980s, is given. Positive and negative effects arise from deregulation. With television dominating U.S. democratic politics, the image of the candidate matters more than the substantive position on the issues; commercials can and do win elections; and Ronald Reagan and his advisers were able manipulators of the medium. Television holds vast potential in a democratic society, yet reforms must be undertaken and citizens must be educated to view television with the understanding of what it is doing to them. A 19-item bibliography concludes this paper. Descriptors: Communications, Critical Viewing, Democracy, Mass Media

Zeigler, L. Harmon; Tucker, Harvey J. (1978). The Quest for Responsive Government: An Introduction to State and Local Politics. After a brief overview of responsiveness in government, this book discusses citizen participation in State and local politics and how well-intentioned reformers actually increased the insulation of State and local governments from their constituents. Sustained activity on behalf of interest groups and lobbying as the dominant mode of communication between organizational elites and legally constituted decision makers in State government are examined. A six-step model is presented that describes the normal pattern of policy making at all levels of government. Contrasting degrees of insularity of decision making in government are discussed. The policy formation process in the area of educational policy is considered, and the six-step model is applied to educational decision making.  The authors attempt to challenge the notion that governmental responsiveness to the masses is either attainable or desirable. Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Democracy, Educational Policy, Governance

Systems Planning Corp., Sacramento, CA. (1975). Compilation of Fall 1974 Goals, Subgoals and Priorities Not Meeting Goals Collection Criteria. California school districts reported their goals, subgoals, and priorities by matching statements to those in a catalog of 279 possible educational goals developed by a state legislature subcommittee. This report compiles data collected from 614 school districts that did not meet certain goals collection criteria. Data from the remaining 217 participating school districts that did meet the goals collection criteria are presented in a companion report. Tables include tabulations of goals, subgoals, and priorities data for elementary, secondary, and unified school districts, and for urban, suburban, and rural school communities. Summary tables present the most frequently mentioned goals, subgoals, and priorities including the ten statements ranked by the highest priority group.    [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship, Democracy, Educational Objectives, Elementary Secondary Education

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