Bibliography: Democracy (page 587 of 596)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the I'm with Tulsi website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Robert Crooks, R. Freeman Butts, Anthony Paskell, Paul Jurmo, Don Swift, Mary Monahan, Rosa Bruno-Jofre, Towson American Library Association Video/Library Video Network, John J. Patrick, and Richard A. Brody.

Butts, R. Freeman (1988). Democratic Values: What the Schools Should Teach. If students are to fulfill their obligations and rights as U.S. citizens they must develop the ability to make careful judgements, based on a reasoned historical perspective and a meaningful conception of the basic democratic values underlying citizenship in our constitutional order. To this end, an agenda of 12 core civic values that are fundamental to the theory and practice of democratic citzenship in the United States has been devised. Called "The Twelve Tables of Civism," this agenda includes six obligations of citizenship: justice, equality, authority, participation, truth, and patriotism and six rights of citizenship: freedom, diversity, privacy, due process, property, and human rights. An in-depth discussion of each of these values, their place in the U.S. political system, and the nature of both their true and corrupted forms is given. Schools have an unparalleled opportunity to influence an entire generation of high school youth during the coming years, especially during the Constitution's bicentennial celebration. The National Competition on the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, sponsored by the U.S. Bicentennial Commission and the Center for Civic Education, is one such opportunity to invigorate the civic life of schools. Project "Civitas," conducted by the Center for Civic Education and the Council for the Advancement of Citizenship, has also been initiated, and is designed to draw up and disseminate an exemplary civic education curriculum. Twenty-three references and a list of thirteen selected readings are included. Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Citizenship, Citizenship Education, Citizenship Responsibility

Brody, Richard A. (1994). Secondary Education and Political Attitudes: Examining the Effects on Political Tolerance of the "We the People…" Curriculum. Based on a 1993 survey of 1,351 high school students from across the United States, this report demonstrates that students in high school civics, government, and U.S. history classes display more "political tolerance" than the average citizen. The study also establishes that students in classes using all or part of the Center for Civic Education's "We the People…" curriculum are more tolerant than students following other curricula. The We the People… program fosters increased tolerance, the report states, because it promotes higher levels of self-confidence and the perception of fewer limits on students' own political freedom. The higher the level of participation in the "We the People…" stimulated congressional hearing competition, the greater the likelihood of students' opposition to limits on free assembly, due process rights, and freedom of speech, press, and religion. (Contains 24 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Civics, Civil Liberties, Civil Rights

Bruno-Jofre, Rosa; Young, Jonathan (1997). Controversial Issues in Public School Administration: Outline for an Inclusive Institute. During 1993-94 the educational administration faculty at the University of Manitoba (Canada) became involved in a self-study process to examine issues of equality and inclusivity in relation to the masters program. This paper describes an elective course for students enrolled in the Educational Administration Master's Program at the University of Manitoba. The course seeks to engage participants in high-order critiques of educational practice and discourse. It will provide a framework for analyzing how schools have responded not only to the demands of the economy and the state, but also to a variety of social demands. The course will also examine how schools have dealt over time with issues of class, race, gender, heterosexism, ableism, and sexual orientation. In addition, the course will explore how teachers envision and re-envision their roles in a process of change. The three-credit course will integrate a historical perspective into the analysis of administrative concerns and theories, with a focus on Manitoba public education and contested issues of equity and inclusivity. The course is organized around four interconnected themes: (1) the role of the school as a politically contested arena; (2) the development of teaching as a profession; (3) the role of the teacher and gender issues; and (4) curriculum, political socialization, and the idioms of Canadian citizenship. Descriptors: Citizenship, Controversial Issues (Course Content), Critical Theory, Cultural Pluralism

Jurmo, Paul, Comp. (1985). "Dialogue Is Not a Chaste Event." Comments by Paulo Freire on Issues in Participatory Research. This document records the reactions of the Brazilian author/educator Paulo Freire to the questions: (1) what should educators do when the people with whom they work are not interested in the ideas of dialogical analysis and participatory decision making?; (2) what should educators do when they encounter hostility from people who feel that a dialogical and participatory process would threaten the status quo?; and (3) do educators have any right to get involved in a process of transformation in another culture? These questions stemmed from a 1982 project intended to increase African farmers' understanding of their own cooperative marketing system and to raise their level of participation in management of the cooperatives. Freire's answers are summarized as follows. Dialogue with others is necessary to the act of knowing because knowing takes place in human, cultural, and historical space. First, educators have to respond to the group, answering their expectations. They must become educators who give knowledge when asked, but also challenge students about their expectations for the knowledge they are demanding. Educators must understand why people do not want dialogue. They should promote dialogue between different participants, for each to defend his/her position. When they debate, they are accepting dialogue. Educators' tactics, developed in response to the situation confronted in the field rather than at the university, must be totally consistent with their strategy, their dream. Because one was born in one society does not prevent him/her from going to other cultures. The first thing one has to do there is to listen to the voice that is speaking. The second is to listen. The third is to discover that one day it is impossible to speak to others without listening to them, too. (23 references) Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer), Community Education, Cooperatives, Democracy

Slee, Roger (1997). Theorizing Discipline – Practical Research Implications for Schools. School discipline and behavior management is an area of considerable contest in educational policy formation. Additionally, educators have a greater responsibility to engage in more rigorous theorizing as a first step to more useful research. The first part of this paper distinguishes between "discipline" as a discourse of management and control and educational theories of student discipline and student behavior. By exploring and contrasting the epistemological foundations for classroom management with an educational theory of discipline, the paper proposes a greater range of interventions that free educators from both neo-Skinnerian behavioral straitjackets and from what Basil Bernstein (1996) has referred to as "spurious biology" or "sets of biological metaphors" that proceed from an acceptance that disruption in schools represents a problem of dysfunctional individual pathologies. The second part explores the political economy of surveillance and control in schools, offers observations on shortcomings of traditional methods of control, and considers new forms of student control. The paper suggests, by providing vignettes from two projects, ways of pursuing discipline that eschews short-term behaviorism and provides school communities with greater opportunity for educational progress. (Contains 87 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Action Research, Behaviorism, Democracy, Discipline Policy

Schwier, Richard A. (1993). Classifying Interaction for Emerging Technologies and Implications for Learner Control. A classification scheme for multimedia interaction is described based on the degree of control and type of cognitive engagement experienced by learners in prescriptive, democratic, and cybernetic independent learning environments. Reactive, proactive, and mutual levels of interaction and their associated functions and transactions are discussed. Principles for designing interactive multimedia instruction emerging from this classification are discussed, along with current research on learner control. The classification is temporal and developmental. As levels of interaction are ascended by the instructional designer and reflected in the design of interaction, the amount of control abdicated to the learner changes. As instructional design theory advances, the categories offered will probably evolve. Four figures illustrate the discussion. (Contains 42 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Classification, Computer Assisted Instruction, Cybernetics, Democracy

Monahan, Mary (1997). Vartan Gregorian: A Biographical Essay with Specific Focus on His Views Concerning Libraries and Librarians. This paper is a biographical essay on Vartan Gregorian, appointed president of Carnegie Corporation in 1997. The focus of the research is on Vartan Gregorian's accomplishments as an educator, as provost of the University of Pennsylvania, as director and president of the New York Public Library, and, most recently, as the president of Brown University. This paper details his opinions and beliefs concerning the role of libraries and librarians in the information age. Research methods included a review of the available literature by and about Vartan Gregorian and a telephone interview with him on August 13, 1997. Topics discussed include biographical background; management style; fundraising; Gregorian's presidency of Brown University; the telephone interview; quality of library service to the public; implications of technological advancement on access to information; intellectual freedom; literacy; books in the electronic library; library and librarian roles in the information age; Vartan Gregorian's ability to combine visions of the ideal with practical means of attaining them; and future career plans and mission. The interview questions are appended. Contains 31 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Information, Biographies, Censorship, Democracy

Putkiewicz, Elzbieta (1996). Culture and the Kindergarten Curriculum in Poland. This paper describes the effect of cultural context on the content of kindergarten curriculum in Poland, chronicling the historical changes from Communist to post-Soviet, capitalist cultures. Soviet cultural influence on early childhood education from 1945 to 1989 is described as affecting a single obligatory curriculum, strict government control, limited parental involvement, direct instruction, nationalist activities, and ideological indoctrination. The paper notes that the developing pluralism of the 1970s and 1980s did not affect the uniform state cultural policy in the schools because of strict tutorial control, limited parental involvement, and a parental belief in the survival of Polish family values–which was encouraged by the Church. The paper presents changes in the educational curriculum in kindergartens in the 1990s, including policy documents that became invalid and changes in minimum standards for education. The general assumptions and program content, including physical education, child/family/environment relations, and cognitive and creative development, of these new education standards are outlined. Changes are reported in classroom instruction, particularly greater communication between teacher and students, more small group and individual work, and less formal discipline. Also noted are the increasing role of religion in the schools, greater parental participation, and new civic schools, including Jewish schools. Finally, the paper briefly describes a study of teacher attitudes, revealing a mixture of hope and anxiety, and mixed feelings about the loss of state control, greater teacher autonomy, and parental participation. (Two hundred and nine teachers participated.   [More]  Descriptors: Capitalism, Classroom Communication, Classroom Environment, Communism

Patrick, John J. (1996). National Standards as Reflectors and Directors of Practices in Civic Education in the U.S.A. In 1994 the Center for Civic Education published "National Standards for Civics and Government," content standards clearly defining what students should know and be able to do as the outcome of civic education in school. This standards project has been an attempt to standardize the best in civic education and to make the Standards accessible to all teachers and learners of U.S. civics and government. This report takes a closer look at the National Standards by responding to three questions: (1) "What conception of civic education is conveyed by these National Standards?"; (2) "What notable trends in educational practices exemplify the implementation or operationalization of ideas in the standards?"; and (3) "How have the National Standards influenced national assessment of student achievement?" This report concludes that since 1994 the Standards have become criteria by which to criticize constructively civic education programs and practices. However, the National Standards in Civics project should not be a "one-shot" project. Rather, constructive criticism directed at the Standards should be the stimulator of the next round of development of U.S. national standards for civic education.   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement, Citizenship Education, Civics, Course Content

Hamot, Gregory E. (1997). Civic Education in the Czech Republic: Curriculum Reform for Democratic Citizenship. ERIC Digest. Many cooperative civic education projects among U.S. and Central/Eastern European educators have emerged since the end of Communist Party Rule in the former Czechoslovakia. This digest describes a collaborative curriculum development project, Civic Education for the Czech Republic (CECR). The objective of CECR is to revise the existing social studies curricular framework for the third form of secondary schools (ages 17 and 18) by taking particular aim at the overarching objectives for civic education reform started in 1989. The project seeks to develop sample lessons and a teacher's manual that realize this objective and to present suggestions for additional teaching methods. Other CECR components included: (1) an intensive Curriculum Development Workshop held at the University of Iowa and attended by Czech teachers and pedagogical faculty, U.S. curriculum development and civic education specialists, and Iowa secondary social studies teachers; (2) an international Partnership Program; and (3) an evaluation of the final product by Czech and U.S. experts in civic education and curriculum design.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Civics, Communism, Curriculum Development

American Library Association Video/Library Video Network, Towson, MD. (1996). For Freedom's Sake. [Videotape]. Intellectual freedom is a concept fundamental to all libraries. It enables library customers to access a wide variety of materials in numerous formats, and is a concept dear to the hearts and minds of a democratic society. Libraries are often challenged by individuals and groups concerned about the availability of certain materials. The first part of this 25-minute videotape presents an overview of intellectual freedom in libraries and its historical and philosophical significance. The Library Bill of Rights is examined. Discussions with library administrators who have experienced challenges to their collections provide insight into the issue. The second part of the tape features vignettes to which staff members can react. After an intellectual freedom situation is depicted, viewers stop the tape and react to the scene. Possible solutions are presented, providing an opportunity to practice communication techniques before an encounter. Intellectual freedom scenarios include: (1) When shelving; (2) At the information desk; (3) At the check-out desk; (4) The Internet; and (5) On the floor. A print resource guide, "Coping with Challenges" provides strategies and tips for dealing with challenges to library materials, including: effective communication techniques; tips for public and school libraries; a camera-ready brochure on children and libraries; and lists of support groups and American Library Association resources. Descriptors: Access to Information, Censorship, Children, Civil Liberties

Swift, Don (1992). [SAIDE Launching Conference, 1992–] Closing Address. The objectives of the Launching Conference of the South African Institute for Distance Education (SAIDE) are reviewed, and its recommendations are explored. The conference participants considered how theories, teaching, and administrative practices in distance education worldwide could be used to design a new distance education system for a democratic South Africa. It was necessary to recognize that present practices are not adequate alone, and that student success depends on the quality of educational experience that an institution provides. The conference has therefore provided a good forum for considering how access to education and equal educational opportunities can be established. A summary of what delegates want from SAIDE includes the following roles: (1) policy, advocacy, and lobbying; (2) networking, cooperation, and facilitating; (3) acting as a resource center; (4) acting as a research and evaluation body; (5) training and staff development; (6) initiation and enabling; and (7) immediate tasks of information dissemination and administrative efforts.   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Education, Computer Networks, Conferences, Democracy

Adler-Kassner, Linda, Ed.; Crooks, Robert, Ed.; Watters, Ann, Ed. (1997). Writing the Community: Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Composition. AAHE's Series on Service-Learning in the Disciplines. This volume is part of a series of 18 monographs on service learning and the academic disciplines. These essays highlight some of the benefits and problems of service-learning in the college composition curriculum and present further areas for study. Following the Introduction, "Service-Learning and Composition at the Crossroads," by Linda Adler-Kassner, Robert Crooks, and Ann Watters, and an Introduction, "Service-Learning: Help for Higher Education in a New Millennium?" by Lillian Bridwell-Bowles, the essays are: "Writing across the Curriculum and Community Service Learning: Correspondences, Cautions, and Futures" (Tom Deans); "Community Service Writing: Problems, Challenges, Questions" (Nora Bacon); "Community Service and Critical Teaching" (Bruce Herzberg); "Rhetoric Made Real: Civic Discourse and Writing beyond the Curriculum" (Paul Heilker); "Democratic Conversations: Civic Literacy and Service-Learning in the American Grains" (David D. Cooper and Laura Julier); "Partners in Inquiry: A Logic for Community Outreach" (Linda Flower); "Service-Learning: Bridging the Gap between the Real World and the Composition Classroom" (Wade Dorman and Susann Fox Dorman); "Systems Thinking, Symbiosis, and Service: The Road to Authority for Basic Writers" (Rosemary L. Arca); "Combining the Classroom and the Community: Service-Learning in Composition at Arizona State University" (Gay W. Brack and Leanna R. Hall); "The Write for Your Life Project: Learning To Serve by Serving To Learn" (Patricia Lambert Stock and Janet Swenson); and "On Reflection: The Role of Logs and Journals in Service-Learning Courses" (Chris M. Anson). Appended are a 39-item annotated bibliography and a list of program descriptions by institution. (All papers contain references.)   [More]  Descriptors: College Students, Community Services, Democracy, Higher Education

Burriss, April Phelps (1996). Mexico: A Transition toward Democratic Reform and Change into the 21st Century. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico). This paper presents a description and rationale for a proposed international study program for Hampton University (Virginia). The program seeks to develop further international summer exchange programs for the university students and to visit universities in Mexico and establish contacts for future study programs. Three other projects that have been developed as a result of the Fulbright experience in Mexico are outlined briefly.   [More]  Descriptors: Area Studies, Cultural Awareness, Democracy, Foreign Countries

Paskell, Anthony (1968). Our Indian Children: What Is Their Future?, Online Submission. The article was written to direct attention to the deplorable conditions still being suffered on many Indian Reserves across Canada; and, further, to show how these conditions reflect themselves in the schools, and in the children. These conditions, it was maintained, consisted of all the usual results of abject poverty and systematic neglect and exploitation of the First Nations people–degradation, humiliation, substandard living conditions, low self-esteem, heavy drinking, sickness, and apathy. Since these conditions reflect themselves on the children, it was maintained, then what is the impact on the children, and what role does the teacher (overwhelmingly white) serve on the reserve and in the classroom? The author then sketched an outline depicting a fairly typical situation the first year on a reserve by a fairly typical teacher in charges of a fairly typical class of students. The picture painted was bleak in the extreme; especially since the Dickensian depictions were happening in one of the richest countries on earth. And they were almost all based on personal experience. The article concludes with a message to incoming teachers for the following year. The message was a simple appeal–if you wish to succeed, you must (a) leave your middle-class values at home, (b) climb off the backs of the kids, and let them be what they are, (c) be unfailingly there for them and their parents and (d) institute the democratic process in the classroom; one vote per person including yourself.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indian Education, Drinking, Foreign Countries, Canada Natives

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